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Traditional obstetric sonograms are done by placing a transducer on the abdomen of the pregnant woman.One variant, transvaginal sonography, is done with a probe placed in the woman's vagina.Some abnormalities detected by ultrasound can be addressed by medical treatment in utero or by perinatal care, though indications of other abnormalities can lead to a decision regarding abortion.Perhaps the most common such test uses a measurement of the nuchal translucency thickness ("NT-test", or "Nuchal Scan").
The International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (ISUOG) recommends that pregnant women have routine obstetric ultrasounds between 18 weeks' and 22 weeks' gestational age (the anatomy scan) in order to confirm pregnancy timing, to measure the fetus so that growth abnormalities can be recognized quickly later in pregnancy, and to assess for congenital malformations and multiple pregnancies (twins, etc).
Doppler sonography can be used to evaluate the pulsations in the fetal heart and bloods vessels for signs of abnormalities.
A gestational sac can be reliably seen on transvaginal ultrasound by 5 weeks' gestational age (approximately 3 weeks after ovulation).
The Late Dating Scan is a reassurance scan that takes place in the first couple of weeks of the second trimester.
It provides information about the baby’s well-being.